Lecture 21

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           Lecture 21:  Third Style Painting in Pompeii


A. A. Ippel- Der Dritte pompejanische Stil

   l. Where did it come from?

   2. Petra, Jordan- Khazne and El-Deir

   3. Role of Asia Minor overelaborate decoration?


  1. Vitruvius on Apaturius of Alabanda (Tralles), Caria who

      designed a scaena for a little theater known as the



   l. Columnas, signas, centauros sustinentes epistylia,

      tholorum rotunda tecta, fastigiorum prominentes

      versuras, coronasque capitibus leoninis ornatas,

      quae ora stillicidiorum e tectis habent rationem,

      praetera supra ea nihilominus episcaenum in qua

      tholi, pronai, emifastigia omnisque tecti varius

      picturis fuerat ornatus

   2. Lack of propriety- Alabandines unintelligent only in this

   3. Abderites- do not put discobolos in forum and orators in

      the gym

   4. New taste causes bad art- people love it


C. The Third Style- First Phase 20-10 B.C.

  1. The disintegration of solid architectural forms
  2. The lack of taxis or order about architectural form and the idea of non-functionalism
  3. Only the central part of the wall known as the central pavilion retained its architectural frame and emphasis
  4. Overdecoration particularly with fastidious ornament
  5. Hints of perspective found in the upper zone of the wall
  6. A flat dado without perspective and emphasizing linear decoration
  7. Slenderizing of columns
  8. Lots of solid orthostate courses—using red, black, white over broad areas
  9. In the early phase, a miniaturist precision very delicate and graceful
  10. Floating figures within the solidly colored panels
  11.  Candelabrum style decorations with garlands suspended between


D. The Roman Villa at Boscotrecase south of Naples

   l. 1902- 4 rooms of villa rustica

   2. Railroad between here and Torre Annunziata

   3. 1903- Ernesto Santini, digger and land owner

   4. 1906- Vesuvius eruption

   5. 1922- M. della Corte Notizie degli scavi

   6. 1962- Von Blanckenhagen and C. Alexander

   7. Rostovtzeff- Romishce Mitteilungen 1911

      a. Caesari August femina mater erat

      b. Julia? wed to Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Agrippa,

         and Tiberius, sons Gaius and Lucius, daughter

         Agrippina and son Agrippa Postumus 12 B.C.-14

      c. Villa of 21-16 B.C. and decoration 3-7 A.D.

      d. Tile- pupil Agrip Tub Fabio cos, refers to ward Tubero

          and Fabius 11 B.C.


D. Roman taste for fantasy and Baroque

   l. Inherited vocabulary of Greek parts

   2. Lack Greek need to maintain them in proper order

   3. Nouveau riche- same as 19th century Paris

   4. Love of engineering invention, innovation

   5. Vogue conscious, like America- hula hoops

   6. Conservative element versus avant garde

   7. Greeks could do it if wished to- Propylaea



E. The Question of Perspective

   l. Euclid- Optics 300 B.C.

      a. When objects are situated along same straight line

         at equal intervals, those seen at further distance

         appear smaller.

     b. Of the planes below the eye, the further points

        appear higher and vice-versa

   2. Did Greek artists know it? Agatharcus did a skene with centrum constitutum

      certo loco

   3. Lucretius (100-55 B.C.) the Epicurean- 4.430

   4. H.G. Beyen "Die Antike Zentralperspektive," Jdi 1939

      a. Casa del Labirinto- Pompeii- 40 receding lines

         and 6 miss by half inch

      b. Villa of Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale- 2nd Style,

          Phase 1C

            40s B.C.- Whole wall elaborately dissolved

            Exotically painted columns with bejeweled look,

            increased fantasy

            Accessories- geegaws, masks, shields

      c. Greek parallels- Heroon of Gjolbaschi

      d. Villa of the Mysteries Alcove l4 at Pompeii

      e. House of the Masks on the Palatine Hill, Rome


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