Classics/Art 329 Lectures 4-6

Lecture 4: The Age of  Romanticism (1750-1900)

A. Romanticism- The Reaction to Rococo- Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French Revolution 1789--

    1. 1750-1900 reaction to the artifice of   Rococo -- Search for natural expression of emotion- Jean-Jacques Rousseau [view an image of Rousseau]

    2. The Natural Man, Simple Peasant

    3. Nostalgia for the glorious past as it never was

 B. Gothic Revival- Horace Walpole (1717- 1797) and Strawberry Hill, England [view an image of Horace Walpole]

    1.Stained glass, ribbed vaults, mullions, clustered chimney

    2. Flemish stepped gable

    3. Deliberate asymmetry, secret passages

    4. Gothic seen as the age of mystery

    5. Confusion with Romanesque, feudalism, King Arthur

    6. Romantic architecture- exotic, dark stairs

    7. Castle of Otranto- the first Gothic novel

    8. Leads to Frankenstein of Mary Shelley, Dracula of Bram Stoker

    9. Remember: Gothic Revival Art of the 18th century is NOT the same thing as Gothic Art, which dates to the 13th century/Middle Ages.

C. The Classical Revival--Neo-Classical Art

    1. Robert Adam, Osterley House 1767 [view an image of a room in Osterly Park]

    2. Rediscovery of ancient Roman  Pompeii 1750s- destroyed in A.D. 79 by eruption of volcano Mount Vesuvius, near Naples [view an artist's image of Death at Pompeii]

    3. Emma Hamilton- (1761-1815) Grecian attitudes gauze dance, wife of William Hamilton, mistress of Lord Nelson

D. The Royal Pavilion in Brighton

The Royal Pavilion in Brighton- 1815-1818 John Nash, Hindoo Gothic!
The Royal Pavilion in Brighton- 1815-1818 John Nash, Hindoo Gothic!

E. French Romanticism-

    1. Eclecticism and nostalgia for the exotic

    2. Napoleon III and Eugenie- the omphalos of civilization

    3. Haussmann and the new boulevards

    4. The Industrial Revolution and the Nouveau Riche

    5. The Second Empire 1852-1870

F. Charles Garnier and the Paris Opera 1861-1874 [view an image of the Paris Opera]

    1. Showplace of the Nouveau Riche- estates in Asia and Africa, railroads, banks, trade

    2. The Grand Staircase-- Neo-Baroque

G. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1781- 1867)

    1. Neo-Classicism and the Classical Quarry

    2. Academy des Beaux-Arts/Academy of  Fine Arts

    3. The Grand Odalisque 1814 [view an image of the Ingres' Grande Odalisque]

H. Guillaume-Adolphe (William) Bouguereau (1825-1905)

    1. The Birth of Venus 1879 [view an image of Bougereau's Birth of Venus]

    2. Religious maudlin art and Neo-Classical Romanticism- Mother and Child1887

    3. Peepshow sexy  Academic Art- sugary sweet, titillating, photographic realism

    4. Art for the nouveau riche

    5. "Bougre de Bouguereau, ah, tu m'excites trop, je vais chercher un gros numero" [view an image of Bouguereau's Nymphs and Satyrs, 1873 - Academic Art, Neo-Classical]

Lecture 5: Romantic Art, Pre-Raphaelites and Loreena McKennitt

A. Who Are the Pre-Raphaelites?

    1. English Romantic movement-Oxford art critic John Ruskin helps to pioneer

        a. Seek intensity of expression and passion drawn from power of nature

        b. Escape from the contemporary- seek higher reality, thirst for the exotic

        c. Fascination with Medieval rituals and magic- Merlin, King Arthur

        d. Medieval codesof chivalry- noble, serious, religious, somber, still

        e. Love of  nature- water, vegetation, frequently paint outdoors

        f. Bright colors, horror vacui, elegant clothing- crushed velvet

        g. Against modern vulgarity- secret brotherhoods

        h. Women are mysterious and magical creatures- can be frightening, seen with red hair

    2. Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) [view an image of Rossetti]

          a. Resistance to Modernism

          b. Romantic mysticism

          c. Hypersensitivity

          d. The Cult of Death

    3. John William Waterhouse- The Lady of  Shalott, poem of Alfred Lloyd Tennyson, 1888

        a. Curse on her if she looks at Sir Lancelot in King Arthur's court

        b. The mirror crack'd from side to side!

        c. Floating woman [view an image of The Lady of Shalott, 1888 Tate Gallery in London]

4. Sir John Everett Millais-Ophelia 1852- influence of Shakespeare but bizzarre [view an image of Ophelia, 1852, and The Bridesmaid, 1851]

B. Loreena McKennitt- contemporary Canadian Celtic Romantic musician [view image of her album cover Parallel Dreams]

    1. Romantic Influences- she is Celtic conduit, heir

    2. Revives ancestors of French, British, Irish, Canadians

    3. Pre-Raphaelite Influences- The Bonny Swans ca. 1993

        a. Rival sisters for a young man- eldest pushes youngest into water

        b. Dead girl turns to swan but found by harper and she turns into a harp that

        plays by itself

        c. It plays in the hall of their father the king and tells of false Anne

        d. Unicorn Tapestries- Medieval, early Renaissance, ornate, richly detailed

    4. Pre-Raphaelite influences on Loreena

        a. The Lady of Shalott 1992- sets Tennyson's poem to music

        b. Busking- Medeival minstrel with Celtic harp

        c. Color red, escape into Medieval, magical stories and myths [view an image of her album cover The Book of Secrets]

        d. Search for inner truth and higher reality- earth interaction patterns

        e. Her art is an initiation into a secret ceremony- the Loreena cult

        f. Natural magic, dark rituals- animism

        g. Wears crushed velvet- symbol of Medieval royalty 12th-13th century

        h. Femme fatale

        i. Romantic Eclecticism- rock and roll meets Persian percussion meets Celtic

        j. Sufism- 8th century Islamic religious system of Persia

            1. Mystical order promotes dervism

            2. Achieve oneness through contemplation and nature worship

    5. The Mummer's Dance-

        a. Fusion with nature and spinning Sufi dervish dance

        b. Newfoundland traditional customs of harvest time

        c. Go house to house to honor god and the renewal of the seasons

        d. Bear the image of Jesus, wear muted earth colors

        e. One man traditionally dresses as a jester or fool

    6. Loreena the Person

        a. Expect her to be a mystic wandering towering cliffs and peering out to sea

        b. Perfectionist artist and high powered business woman with clear vision

        c. Controls every aspect of her art- writes, produces, arranges music, selects musicians, oversees contract arrangements, produces own videos, stages her own concerts

        d. Unique recording contract with Warner Brothers

Lecture 6: Origins of the Motion Picture

A. The Development of the Fantasy Film

    1. Camera Obscura- new book says used since Renaissance

    2. Magic Lantern [view an image of a Magic Lantern]

    magiclant.gif (49934 bytes)

3. Peter Mark Roget- Persistence of  Vision

    4. Joseph Plateau- Phenakistiscope 1828

    5. Joseph Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) and Louis Daguerre (1787-1851)- photography 1828

    6. Etienne Jules Marey and the Photo Rifle

Marey's photo rifle and photographic studies of the running male nude

7. Eadweard Muybridge and Leland Stanford- zoopraxiscope

        Muybridge's study of a galloping horse, able to be mounted on a zoopraxiscope

   8. Friese Greene 1883- the first movies in England, the Magic Box

    9. Thomas Edison 1887- kinetoscopes, Black Maria

                    "I hate Thomas Edison," David Soren, educator

    10. George Eastman and celluloid film- The Brownie Camera

    11. Charles Pathe

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B. Antoine, Louis and Auguste Lumière of Montplaisir, France [view an image of the Cinematographe Lumière, 1895]

    1. The Industrial Revolution in Paris

    2. Napoleon III and Eugenie 1852-1870

    3. Nouveau Riche

    4. Charles Garnier and the Opera (1852-1870) Neo-Baroque, Romantic

    5. Paris- March, 1895, first projected films in France [view an image of Auguste and Louis Lumiere and their camera/editing machine/projector all in one]

C. Georges Melies and the Cinema of  Fantasy