Lecture 25: Julio-Claudian Successors of Augustus
A. The Roman Empire- begins 27 B.C. with the Julio-Claudian emperors
1. Augustus 27 B.C.- A.D. 14
2. Tiberius A.D. 14-37
3. Caligula 37-41
4. Claudius 41-54
5. Nero 54-68
B. Third Style of Pompeiian Painting under Augustus
1. Villa of Agrippa Postumus at Boscotrecase ca. 15 B.C.
2. The Sacro-Idyllic Landscape
3. Vitruvius, Augustus' architect and the Ten Books on Architecture, ca. 15 B.C.
B. Tiberius Claudius Nero= Tiberius
1. Stepson of Augustus, last choice of Augustus
2. Forced to divorce his dear, pregnant wife to wed Julia
3. Unhappy in marriage- Augustus chooses Gaius and Lucius to succeed Augustus
a. Augustus adopts these children of Agrippa and Julia in 17 B.C.
b. 6 B.C.- Tiberius gets tribunicia potestas
c. 5 B.C.-A.D. 5 - Tiberius in self imposed exile in Rhodes
d. A.D. 13- named co-regent by emperor but must adopt Germanicus, son of Drusus
e. A.D. 26- Leaves Rome permanently for Capri
f. Praetorian Prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus becomes cruel dictator of Rome
4. Popularity of brickworks
5. Populace hates Tiberius- he has grotto and villa at Sperlonga
C. Caligula- name means little boots, real name Gaius, son of Germanicus
1. Massive spender and builds Palatine Hill palace
2. Development of 3rd Style of Pompeiian painting in early first century A.D.
a. House of Marcus Lucretius Fronto in Pompeii
b. Candelabrum Style- thin and reedy, tabulae, flat wall
c. Perspective without depth, floating delicacy
D. Claudius- full name Tiberius Claudius Drusus
1. Uncle of Caligula- forced on senate by palace guards
2. Passed over by Augustus and Tiberius
3. I, Claudius- famous novel by Robert Graves, became television BBC series
4. A natura non absolutum sed inchoatum- not finished up by nature, left unfinished
5. Intellectual- wrote 40 volumes, defense of Cicero, added 2 letters/sounds to alphabet
6. 20 volumes on the Etruscans, 8 on Carthage
7. Had 4 wives
8. Romans expand territory- A.D. 46 Conquest of Britain
9. Agrippina the Younger- daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina, son of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus
10. The Porta Maggiore- rusticated masonry.