340b Lecture 20

Lecture 20: Sculpture and Painting in the Later Roman Republic

A. Roman Portrait Sculpture

    1. Lucius Iunius Brutus- first consul of Rome 509 B.C. condemns own sons to death 

        a. Date difficult to determine- 3rd to 1st century B.C.
        b. Influence of Greek portraiture- the advance towards realism
        c. One of the great heroes of the Republic- ousts Etruscans from Rome

      2. The Arringatore (The Haranguer)- The Orator of  Florence

        a. Middle first century B.C. Etrusco-Roman bronze
        b. Calceus
        c. Toga Exigua

    3. Verism- ultra-realistic Roman late Republican portraiture

        a. First century B.C.- the Age of  Individualism and Nabobs
        b. The Gens puts up statues of the ancestors and claim descent from Gods
        c. Physical likeness of living to ancestors important
        d. Imagines- the dead thought symbolically present
        e. Lararium- cult of the Lares
        f.  Death Masks- rigor mortis

B. Wall Painting Styles of the 2nd and 1st Centuries B.C.

    1. The Ancient Greek Tradition of Painting

        a. Thermon, Aetolia, Greece- Temple of   Apollo - painted metopes 640 B.C.
        b. Greek Painted Pottery-

            1. Athens- Black-Figured Pottery-7th-6th centuries B.C.

            2. Athens- Red-Figured Pottery- 5th-4th centuries B.C.

       c. South Italian Greek Painting- Paestum, Tomb of the Diver ca. 480 B.C.

    2. Etruscan Tradition of Tomb Painting

C. Roman Wall Painting

    1. The First Style- Incrustation Style 200-80 B.C.

        a. Three horizontal divisions of the wall- socle, frieze, upper masonry course
        b. Imitation of drafted masonry
        c. Polychromy
        d. Cornices
        e. Flat walls
        f. Samnite House in Herculaneum

    2. The Second Style= Illusionistic Style 80 B.C.-15 B.C.

        a. Illusionism- expands the room visually
        b. Push-pull walls and columns painted on
        c. House of the Griffins in Rome

    3. The Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii

        a. ca. 40 B.C.- Bride of Dionysus, Dionysiac mysteries
        b. Narrative
        c. Satyr
        d. Pan and Panisca
        e. Lekantomanteia
        f. Domina
        g. Ritual flagellation