340b Lecture 2

Lecture 2: From Villanovans to Etruscans
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A. The Invasion of the Urnfield Cultures- ca. 1000 B.C.

     1. Cremation- Romania to Spain, Poland to Italy

     2. Villanovans- Archaic I and II, Pericle Ducati, Bologna typesite

          a. Pozzo and Ziro Tombs

          b. Biconical Ash Urns

          c. Impasto Ware

B. Characteristics of Archaic II (750-675 B.C.)

     1. End of the Greek Dark Ages

     2. Greeks arrive in South Italy and Sicily

          a. Chalchis and Eretria establish Pithecusa/Ischia

          b. Cumae

          c. Chalchis settles Rhegium on the toe of Italy in 725 B.C.

          d. Sparta founds Taras/Tarentum 706 B.C.

          e. Corinth founds Syracuse 733 B.C. in eastern Sicily

          f. Wheel-made Greek pottery begins

      3. Urnfield Cultures in Latium/Lazio

          a. Sepolcreto in the Roman Forum

          b. The Palatine Hill

          c. Romulus and Remus

          d. Hut Urns

     4. Sculpture- The Wiry Geometric Style

          a. Characteristics: open form, not realistic, fork legs, slit eyes, gash mouth

          b. The Beast Headed Man and Woman from Vetulonia

 C. The Etruscans- Archaic III Begins 675-600 B.C.- Orientalizing Period

     1. Who are the Etruscans?

          a. Indigenous People influenced by Assyria, Phoenicia and Greece

          b. International Age- May come largely from Po Valley and villages such as

              Frattesina on eastern Po.

          c. Raw materials to trade- wool, wine, iron, copper

     2. Near Eastern Connections

          a. Assyria and Tiglath-Pileser III 744-727 B.C.

          b. Orientalizing Period Art- influence from Assyria

          c. Sargon II annexes Syria in 711 B.C.

          d. Esarhadon II 681-668 B.C. annexes Phoenicia and Egypt

          e. Phoenicians and Greeks

      3. New Elements in Etruscan Art and Culture

          a. Wealth- Upper Class, finer materials

          b. Tumulus-

                1. Krepis

                2. Dromos

                3. Stele

                4. Corbel- corbeled arch

                5. Cerveteri/Caere/Agylla

          c. Necropolis

          d. Writing- Etruscan language

          e. Bucchero

          f. Sculptural Advances- The Marsiliana Ivory ca. 650 B.C.