340b Lecture 1

Lecture 1: Civilization in Italy

A. The Geography of Italy

    1. The Apennine Mountains- Gran Sasso 9700 feet high

    2. The Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas

    3. The problem of harbors in the east

    4. Proximity to Africa and Sicily and Greece

    5. The Po River Valley- north of Florence and the Apennines-grain center

    6. The Italian Alps

B. The Regions of Italy-- Tuscany/Etruria

    1. Between Arno and Tiber Rivers and the Tyrrhenian Sea

    2. Catena Metallifera- Cosa, Pisa, Siena, Elba

    3. Colline Metallifere- copper, lead, iron, tin

    4. The Southern Tufo Plateau- soft volcanic ash, crater lakes

    5. The Tiber River

C. Latium/Lazio- central Italian region

    1. The Alban Hills

    2. Mount Albanus 3000 feet high

    3. Volcanic subsoil- bad for grain, good for orchards, vineyards, beech

    4. Alluvial clay under thin coat of lava

    5. The Roman Campagna- the Alban hills and valleys, Anio River

    6. Rome

        a. Volcanic hills up to 300 feet high

        b. Tiber River

        c. The 7 Hills of Rome-

            1.Outer Ring- Quirinal, Viminal, Caelian, Esquiline

            2. Inner Ring- Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine

        d. The Velabrum

D. Dates Summary:

500,000-100,000- Lower Paleolithic

100,000-35,000- Middle Paleolithic

35,000- 8,000- Upper Paleolithic


6000-3000- Neolithic

3000-1000- Bronze Age

1000-750 B.C. Archaic 1

750-675 B.C.- Archaic 2/ Geometric

675-600 B.C.- Archaic 3/ Orientalizing

600-500 B.C.- The Archaic Period

500-300 B.C.- Classical Period

300-31 B.C.- Hellenistic Period

31 B.C.- 330 A.D.- Roman Empire

509 B.C.- 31 B.C.- Roman Republic

E. The Coming of the Iron Age

    1. Bronze Age ends circa 1000 B.C.

    2. Archaic I    1000-750 B.C.--Villanovans arrive

    3. Archaic II    750-675 B.C.-- Geometric

    4. Archaic III     675-600 B.C.--Orientalizing